Explain Mushroom term

Mushroom is a popular term to indicate the basidiome or ascoma (formerly referred to as the fruiting body) of fungi, which are THC Edibles .

(Figure 1)

The structures of sexual reproduction and which belong to the group of basidiomycetes or ascomycetes, respectively

The references made to mushrooms belong mostly to basidiomycetes and for ascomycetes, the best known mushroom is an edible species, Morchella sp. (Figure 1).

Fungi are formed by cells known as hyphae and the set of these hyphae forms the mycelium. From the mycelium, cell differentiation occurs 

That will originate structures of sexual reproduction (ascoma's and basidium's) or asexual reproduction (conidioma's). For basidiomycetes .

The structures of sexual reproduction (basidium's) are macroscopic and observed as mushrooms, wood ears and the little known, gelatinous fungi, gastromycetes, rusts and coals.

The last two devastating pathogens of economically important plantations.

As general characteristics among fungi, mushrooms are heterotrophic organisms, that is, they depend on other living beings for nutrition.

The way they obtain nutrients happens when they release enzymes into the environment, which will degrade organic and also inorganic matter for later absorption through .

The hyphae cell wall. When they decompose remains of organic matter they are referred to as saprophytes and when they degrade remains of plant material .

they are saprophytes. The great production and variety of substances allow mushrooms to develop in environments where degradation is complex, such as tree trunks and even contaminated soils.

Like other fungi, mushrooms produce spores, which are referred to as basidiospores for basidiomycetes; microscopic structures that are dispersed in the environment by air, water, or with the help of animals when they feed, or simply carry 

these spores attached to their bodies. The spores are haploid (n) cells that germinate forming the mycelium, which in turn differentiates in the sometimes macroscopic reproduction structure like mushrooms (basidiomes). The basidiomes have different shapes (figure 2). 

However, for better understanding and studies, experts divided the mushrooms into parts mentioned as: cap or cap; hymenium, the lower part of the cap where basidia and basidiospores are formed; 

the stipe or foot, which may have the presence of a ring located in the upper portion of the stipe and the volva at the base (figure 3). The 

origin of the ring and volva happens when some species of mushroom, still young, are covered by a membrane that breaks during growth, forming these structures.

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